Unlike in other agencies of the FATA, sectarian tensions rather than tribal or political issues are the main drivers of militancy in Kurram. The Afghan jihad against the Soviet invasion forced thousands of Afghans over the border into Kurram, where the Pakistani government established several refugee camps. Many weapons also flowed into Pakistan, ranging from small arms to the famed Stinger missiles, and local families purchased these weapons for protection and attacks against enemies. Thus, clashes between Sunnis and Shia in Kurram looked less like two sectarian rivals squabbling than a full-scale war. Afghan refugees fought largely on the side of the Sunnis in Kurram, and conflicts continued to occur throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Periodically, the fighting would bestopped by tribal elders of both sects.